cropped jeans Blue Isabel Marant Free Shipping Purchase iX3tbJ

SKU0476836808158605

cropped jeans - Blue Isabel Marant

Stanford University

Top

Research

close

Publications

close
Critical Thinking Web

Strengthen the female mind by enlarging it, and there will be an end to blind obedience.

- Mary Wollstonecraft

Help us promotecritical thinking!

Language can be used to mislead and confuse, or to make certain ideas seem more profound than they really are. One main task of critical thinking is to identify these linguistic pitfalls. Let us start with the first major pitfall - obscurity.

"Obscurity" here refers to unclear meaning. A concept or a linguistic expression can be unclear for various reasons. One reason is that it might be ambiguous , i.e. having more than one meaning. The other reason is that it might be vague . A term is said to be vague if there are borderline cases where it is indeterminate as to whether it applies or not. Finally, a term might also have an unclear meaning in that its meaning is incomplete . Let us look at these cases one by one.

§1. Ambiguity

There are actually different kinds of ambiguity:

This is a single word or term having more than one meaning in the language. For example, the word "deep" can mean profoundity ("What you have said is very deep."), or it can be used to describe physical depth ("This hole is very deep"). Similarly for words like "young" (inexperienced or young of age), "bank" (river bank or financial institution), etc.

It is not clear which thing or group is being referred to. This often arises when the context does not make it clear what a pronoun or quantifier is referring to.

This means having more than one meaning because there is more than one way to interpret the grammatical structure. This can happen even when it is clear what the meanings of the individual words are.

An term is vague if it has an imprecise boundary. This means that there are cases where it is indeterminate whether the term applies or not. For example, a small but closed room with no windows or doors and no light inside is certainly dark. If we switch on a 100W lightbulb inside it will become bright. But we turn on the dimmer for the light and dim the light slowly until it goes out, then the room will gradually change from a bright room to a dark one. But there is no precise point at which the room suddenly ceases to be bright. Similarly, there is no precise point at which the room suddenly becomes dark. The terms "dark" and "bright" do not have clear boundaries of applications in this situation, and we say that these terms are vague.

The term "a tall person" is also vague in that there are certain cases where it is hard to say whether a person is tall or not, but this indecision is not due to lack of knowledge about that person's height. You might know exactly how tall that person is, but still you don't know whether he is tall or not. This is because the meaning of the term is not precise enough. Other examples of vague terms : "heavy", "dark", "mountain", "clever", "cheap".

Main navigation

Mens Myer Sports Trousers Geographical Norway Buy Cheap Outlet Clearance Cheap Online Clearance Wide Range Of Sale Big Discount Cheap Deals F0Hm1

/ knitted tee White Cruciani With Credit Card Sale Online Cheap Sale Low Price Fee Shipping Affordable Cheap Price Best Sale Sale Online Cheap 2018 Newest g4QZpaM

ATLANTA—Incorporating laughter into a physical activity program that is focused on strength, balance and flexibility could improve older adults’ mental health, aerobic endurance and confidence in their ability to exercise, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

Media Contact

LaTina Emerson Public Relations Specialist Georgia State University 404-413-1353 lemerson1@gsu.edu

In this study, older adults residing in four assisted-living facilities participated in a moderate-intensity group exercise program called LaughActive that incorporates playful simulated laughter into a strength, balance and flexibility workout. In simulated laughter exercises, participants initially choose to laugh and go through the motions of laughing. The exercises facilitate eye contact and playful behaviors with other participants, which generally transition the laughter from simulated to genuine.

Simulated laughter techniques are based on knowledge that the body cannot distinguish between genuine laughter that might result from humor and laughter that is self-initiated as bodily exercise. Both forms of laughter elicit health benefits, researchers said.

For six weeks, study participants attended two 45-minute physical activity sessions per week that included eight to 10 laughter exercises lasting 30 to 60 seconds each. A laughter exercise was typically incorporated into the workout routine after every two to four strength, balance and flexibility exercises. Because laughter is scientifically demonstrated to strengthen and relax muscles, the laughter exercises often involved physicality in the muscles being worked in strength, balance and flexibility exercises to prepare the body for exercise and help it recover.

The study found significant improvements among participants in mental health, aerobic endurance and outcome expectations for exercise (for example, perceived benefit of exercise participation), based on assessments completed by the participants. When surveyed about their satisfaction with the program, 96.2 percent found laughter to be an enjoyable addition to a traditional exercise program, 88.9 percent said laughter helped make exercise more accessible and 88.9 percent reported the program enhanced their motivation to participate in other exercise classes or activities. The findings are published in the journal The Gerontologist.

Despite the health benefits of physical activity and the risks of physical inactivity, many adults don’t engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Maintaining the motivation to adhere to regular physical activity is a challenge for many older adults. Adults should participate in a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity at least five days per week to achieve desirable health outcomes, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines.

Topics

Resources

Site Information

Other Haymarket Medical Websites

Copyright © 2018 Haymarket Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in any form without prior authorization.

Your use of this website constitutes acceptance of Haymarket Media's Privacy Policy and Terms Conditions .